While butorphanol can be made from thebaine, it is usually manufactured synthetically. It was initially available in injectable formulations for human (Stadol®) and veterinary (Torbugesic® and Torbutrol®) use. More recently, a nasal spray (Stadol NS®) became available, and significant diversion and abuse of this product led to the 1997 control of butorphanol in Schedule IV of the CSA. Butorphanol is a clear example of a drug gaining favor as a drug of abuse only after it became available in a form that facilitated its mode of administration (nasal spray v. injection).
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